On This Day…

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622– Muslim Era begins – Muhammad begins flight from Mecca to Medina (Hijra) 

1054– Three Roman legates fracture relations between Western and Eastern Christian churches by placing invalid Papal Bull of Excommunication on altar of Hagia Sophia during liturgy. Often dated start of the East-West Schism. 

1519– Public debate between Martin Luther and theologian Johann Eck at Pleissenburg Castle in Liepzig, during which Luther denies the divine right of the Pope 

1809– La Paz, Bolivia declares its independence from the Spanish Crown and forms the Junta Tuitiva led by Pedro Domingo Murillo, the 1st independent government in Spanish America 

1940– Adolf Hitler orders preparations for the invasion of Britain (Operation Sealion) 

1945 – The United States tested the first atomic bomb this day in 1945 near Alamogordo, New Mexico, and the following month dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan, hastening the end of World War II. 

1951 – J.D. Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye, which centred on the sensitive, rebellious adolescent Holden Caulfield, was published and later became a classic. 

1965 – The Mont Blanc Tunnel officially opened, linking France and Italy; at the time, it was the world’s longest vehicular tunnel, spanning 7.3 miles (11.7 km). 

1969 – Apollo 11 lifted off from NASA’s John F. Kennedy Space Center in Florida, and four days later two of its astronauts, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, became the first humans to set foot on the Moon. 

1979 – Saddam Hussein became president of Iraq, and his brutal rule, which lasted 24 years, was marked by costly and unsuccessful wars with neighbouring countries as well as atrocities against the Iraqi people. 

2018 – U.S. President Donald Trump met with Russian President Vladimir Putin in Helsinki, and the summit proved highly controversial as Trump questioned the conclusion of U.S. intelligence agencies that Russia had meddled in the 2016 U.S. presidential election. 
Births & Deaths: 
1999 – American publisher and lawyer John F. Kennedy, Jr., the only son of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and first lady Jacqueline Kennedy, died after the airplane he was piloting crashed off Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts; also killed were his wife and her sister. 

2017 – American filmmaker George A. Romero—who was known for his horror films, notably Night of the Living Dead (1968), which launched a series of related movies—died at age 77. 

Film & TV:
2017 – BBC announces first ever female Doctor Who will be played by Jodie Whittaker 

Music:
1782– Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s opera “Die Entführung aus dem Serail” premieres in Vienna with Mozart conducting 

Sport:
2017– Wimbledon Men’s Tennis: Roger Federer beats Marin Čilić 6-3, 6-1, 6-4 for a record 8th Wimbledon men’s title 

Via Britannica / On This Day 

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