1687 – Isaac Newton’s great work Principia published by Royal Society in England, outlining his laws of motion and universal gravitation
1811 – Venezuelan Declaration of Independence: 7 provinces declare themselves independent of Spain
1852 – Frederick Douglass, fugitive slave, delivers his ‘What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?’ speech to the Ladies’ Anti-Slavery Society in Rochester, condemns the celebration as hypocritical sham
1865 – US Secret Service begins operating under the Treasury Department
1950 – Passed this day in 1950 by the Knesset, the Law of Return granted Jews the freedom to immigrate to Israel and receive immediate citizenship, but it proved controversial when the question “Who is a Jew?” raised other issues.
1971 – The Twenty-sixth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was certified, granting suffrage to citizens age 18 years and older.
1994 – Amazon.com founded in Bellevue, Washington by Jeff Bezos
1996 – Dolly, a female Finn Dorset sheep, was born near Edinburgh, becoming the first successfully cloned mammal; her birth was not publicly revealed until the following year.
2004 – First Indonesian presidential election by the people – first round (eventually won by Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono)
Births & Deaths:
1810 – American showman P.T. Barnum—who, with James A. Bailey, made the circus a popular and gigantic spectacle in the United States—was born.
2009 – Wimbledon Men’s Tennis: Roger Federer beats Andy Roddick of the US 5-7, 7-6, 7-6, 3-6, 16-14 for a record 15th Grand Slam singles title
1975 – At Knebworth Festival in England, Pink Floyd debut their album “Wish You Were Here” with pyrotechnics and an exploding plane which flies into the stage
TV & Film:
1954 – The BBC broadcasts its first television news bulletin.
Via Britannica / On This Day