1549 – The city of Salvador da Bahia, the first capital of Brazil, is founded.
1807 – German astronomer Wilhelm Olbers discovered the minor planet Vesta, the brightest asteroid in the sky.
1867 – With the British North America Act, the British colonies of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Canada were united as the Dominion of Canada, and the province of Canada was separated into Quebec and Ontario.
1901 – Edmund Barton is elected Prime Minister in Australia’s first parliamentary election.
1912 – Captain Robert Scott, storm-bound in a tent near South Pole, makes last entry in his diary “the end cannot be far”.
1917 – Man O’ War, perhaps the most famous American Thoroughbred in 20th-century horse racing, was foaled.
1951 – Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were found guilty of espionage and sentenced to death for turning over U.S. military secrets to the Soviet Union.
1961 – After a 4½ year trial Nelson Mandela is acquitted of treason in Pretoria.
1973 – American troops evacuated Saigon (Ho Chi Minh City) as the United States ended its involvement in the Vietnam War.
1974 – Chinese farmers discover the Terracotta Army near Xi’an, 8,000 clay warrior statues buried to guard the tomb of China’s 1st emperor, Qin Shi Huang.
1999 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes at 10006.78 – above the 10,000 mark for the first time ever.
Births & Deaths:
1918 – Sam Walton, a retail magnate who is one of the wealthiest individuals in American history and founder of Wal-Mart, was born.
1994 – Coach Jimmy Johnson quits Dallas Cowboys.
1795 – Ludwig van Beethoven (24) has his debut performance as a pianist in Vienna.
TV & Film:
1959 – “Some Like It Hot”, directed by Billy Wilder and starring Marilyn Monroe, Tony Curtis, and Jack Lemmon, is released in NYC.
Via Britannica / On This Day