1734 – Augustus III was crowned king of Poland.
1773 – Captain James Cook becomes 1st to cross Antarctic Circle (66° 33′ S).
1873 – A group of Modoc warriors defeats the United States Army in the First Battle of the Stronghold, a part of the Modoc War.
1893 – Acting for Hawaiian sugar interests and their American allies, a committee led by Sanford Ballard Dole deposed Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani this day in 1893 and installed a provisional government with Dole as president.
1912 – British explorer Robert Falcon Scott and four members of his expedition reached the South Pole, only to discover that Roald Amundsen had preceded them by a month; Scott and his men subsequently died returning to their base camp.
1917 – The United States purchased three of the Virgin Islands—St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix—from Denmark for $25 million.
1946 – United Nations Security Council holds its 1st meeting.
1991 – Operation Desert Storm begins, with US-led coalition forces bombing Iraq, during the Gulf War.
1995 – A large-scale earthquake struck the Ōsaka-Kōbe (Hanshin) metropolitan area, killing an estimated 6,400 people and causing major damage.
Births & Deaths:1706 – American author, inventor, and diplomat Benjamin Franklin—who, as one of the foremost Founding Fathers, helped draft the Declaration of Independence—was born.
1820 – English poet and novelist Anne Brontë, sister of Charlotte and Emily Brontë, was born.
1922 – American actress Betty White, who was best known for her comedic work on numerous television shows, was born.
1942 – American professional boxer Muhammad Ali was born in Louisville, Kentucky.
Music: 1976 – “I Write the Songs” by Barry Manilow hits #1.
TV & Film: 1984 – Supreme Court rules (5-4) that private use of home VCRs to tape TV programs for later viewing does not violate federal copyright laws.
Via Britannica / On This Day