532 – Nika riots begin in Constantinople, revolt against Emperor Justinian I, prompted by chariot racing.
1785 – John Walter publishes 1st issue of “The Times” of London.
1898 – French author Émile Zola published an open letter in the newspaper L’Aurore denouncing the French general staff for its role in the 1894 treason conviction of Jewish French army officer Alfred Dreyfus.
1942 – American industrialist Henry Ford patented plastic automobile construction.
1943 – Hitler declares “Total War”.
1970 – Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu flees Biafra into exile, leaving his deputy Philip Effiong to surrender to the Nigerian army, unofficially ending the Nigerian Civil War.
2000 – Microsoft chairman Bill Gates steps aside as chief executive and promotes company president Steve Ballmer to the position.
2012 – The Costa Concordia, a cruise ship carrying some 4,200 people, ran aground and capsized off Giglio Island, Italy; 32 passengers were killed.
Births & Deaths: 1832 – Horatio Alger, one of the most popular American authors in the last 30 years of the 19th century and perhaps the most socially influential American writer of his generation, was born.
Sport: 1972 – Bernice Gera wins anti-discrimination case against the National Baseball Congress, initiated March 15, 1971 to be allowed to umpire.
Music: 1968 – American singer and songwriter Johnny Cash recorded the album Johnny Cash at Folsom Prison in front of an audience of some 2,000 inmates at California’s Folsom Prison.
1976 – Sarah Caldwell is 1st woman to conduct at NYC Metropolitan Opera House as she led orchestra in a performance of “a Traviata”.
TV & Film: 1928 – RCA and GE install three test television sets in homes in Schenectady, New York allowing American inventor E.F.W. Alexanderson to demonstrate the first home television receiver which delivered a poor and unsteady 1.5 square inch picture.
Via Britannica / On This Day