1016 – Cnut the Great [Canute], King of Denmark, claims the English throne after the death of Edmund ‘Ironside’. 1648 – English Parliamentary army captures King Charles I. 1731 – Beijing hit by an earthquake; about 100,000 die.
1786 – Grand Duke of Tuscany Leopold II promulgates a penal reform, making his the 1st state to abolish the death penalty. November 30 commemorated as Cities for Life Day.
1874 – Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, the British leader who guided Great Britain and the Allies through the crisis of World War II, is born at Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, England.
1939 – Red Army crosses the Soviet-Finnish border with 465,000 men and 1,000 aircraft. Helsinki was bombed, and 61 Finns were killed in an air raid that steeled the Finns for resistance, not capitulation.
1974 – Most complete early human skeleton (Lucy, Australopithecus) discovered by Donald Johanson, Maurice Taieb, Yves Coppens and Tim White in the Middle Awash of Ethiopia’s Afar Depression.
Film: 1982 – “Gandhi” directed by Richard Attenborough and starring Ben Kingsley and John Gielgud premieres in New Delhi (Best Picture 1983). 1994 – Beatles’ 1st album in 25 years, “Live at the BBC”, is released in Britain.
Music: 1982 – “Thriller”, 6th studio album by Michael Jackson is released (Grammy Award Album of the Year 1984, best-selling album of all time, Billboard Album of the Year 1983). 1979 – The British rock band Pink Floyd released their 11th studio album, The Wall.
Via Britannica / On This Day