1530 – The Recess document resulting from the Diet of Augsburg signed by Charles V and catholic princes.
1620 – The Mayflower reaches Cape Cod and explores the coast.
1794 – During his tenure as the first chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, John Jay negotiated the Jay Treaty with Great Britain, helping mend ties between the Americans and British.
1805 – Lewis and Clark expedition, led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, reaches the Pacific Ocean, first European Americans to cross the west.
1820 – The Troppau protocol, a declaration of intention to take collective action against the revolution, was signed by the Holy Alliance powers at the Congress of Troppau.
1863 – US President Abraham Lincoln delivers his Gettysburg address beginning; “Four score & seven years ago…”
1942 – Operation Uranus: Soviet offensive begins during Battle of Stalingrad, 1 million Soviet soldiers encircle the German Sixth Army.
1969 – Apollo 12’s Charles Conrad and Alan Bean become the 3rd and 4th humans on the Moon.
1977 – After the Arab-Israeli war of 1973–74, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat began to work toward peace, and on this day in 1977 he began his historic visit to Israel, during which he offered a peace plan to its parliament.
1985 – US President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev meet for the first time.
2007 – Amazon.com began selling the Kindle, a wireless electronic reading device that played a key role in popularizing e-books.
Sport: 1953 US Supreme Court rules (7-2) baseball is a sport, not a business.
Music: 1990 Pop duo Milli Vanilli are stripped of their Grammy Award after it is learned they did not sing on their award-winning “Girl You Know Its True” album.
TV & Film: 1916 Samuel Goldwyn and Edgar Selwyn establish Goldwyn Pictures, the company later became one of the most successful independent filmmakers.
Via Britannica / On This Day