As France starts coming to terms with the damages and plans for rebuilding the beloved Notre Dame after its devastating fire, Euronews has taken a look at other churches and cathedrals across Europe that have also had to be rebuilt after disaster struck.
Saint Paul’s Cathedral — London, United Kingdom
One of the UK’s most recognisable landmarks, St Paul’s Cathedral. The original structure was reduced to ruins during the Great Fire of London in 1666. It was later rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren, one of Britain’s most famous architects.
Santa Maria Maior — Lisbon, Portugal
Santa Maria Maior or Sé de Lisboa, has endured multiple earthquakes since its construction in 1147.In 1755, an earthquake partially levelled Lisbon’s Santa Maria Maior.
Dresden Frauenkirche — Dresden, Germany
A controversial Allied firebombing campaign on the German city of Dresden over the course of two days in 1945, that killed tens of thousands of people destroyed the Dresden Frauenkirche or Church of Our Lady. It was initially left to serve as a memorial to the bombings but was eventually rebuilt after the fall of the Berlin wall.
Holy Cross Church — Warsaw, Poland
Another victim to the Second World War, the Nazis all but destroyed the Polish capital in a furious response to an uprising led by the resistance. The Holy Cross Church was damaged during the uprising, but became one of many buildings deliberately destroyed afterwards by the Germans — it was blown up twice in 1944 and 1945.
After rebuilding, it remained one of Warsaw’s most famous churches, serving as the resting place of the heart of Polish pianist Frédéric François Chopin with his body was buried in Paris.
Monte Cassino Abbey — Monte Cassino, Italy
This 6th century Abbey was founded by Saint Benedict, in 1944 was subject to attacks from Allied forces during the Second World War because of the occupying Nazi forces.
While the Abbey itself was destroyed, many artefacts and priceless treasures were relocated to the Vatican ahead of the battle. It was later rebuilt and is still a huge tourist attraction today.
Zagrebačka katedrala — Zagreb, Croatia
The cathedral in Croatia’s capital, in 1242, the original structure was destroyed in the Mongol invasion of Europe, before being rebuilt. An earthquake in the 19th century saw the partial collapse of Zagreb’s cathedral, which required major restoration work into how it appears today.
Stephansdom — Vienna, Austria
Known in English as St Stephen’s Cathedral, this 14th-century structure was built on the ruins of two former churches. In 1945 it was ravaged by a series of fires that spread toward the cathedral and caved its roof. Rebuilding took several years, with Stephansdom finally reopening in the early 1950s.
Cathedral of Christ the Saviour — Moscow, Russia
The Orthodox Christian Cathedral of Christ the Saviour was consecrated in 2000 after it was built upon the ruins of its former self. The original structure was built during the 19th century, but in 1931 Soviet leader Joseph Stalin ordered it to be destroyed to make way for the building of a Soviet Palace. However, the construction of the new palace was interrupted by the Second World War, and was subsequently never finished.
Canterbury Cathedral — Canterbury, United Kingdom
Canterbury Cathedral endured at least three fires and multiple rebuilds since it was founded in 597.